Throughout the decades of occupation, the international community has “urged” Israel to change its policies. Western donors also invested in major infrastructure during the Oslo peace process, like the Gaza airport that Israel later destroyed. Donors have also tried to mitigate the worst consequences of the occupation, with little success. The effects of economic stagnation and decline will take decades to reverse, as will rising malnutrition and illiteracy. However, donor countries have never fulfilled their responsibility to challenge the occupation and Israel’s control of Palestinian land, water, economy, and basic freedoms. The fundamental questions for peace negotiators planning to meet at Annapolis are: Will Israel end its occupation and return control of Palestinian land and lives to Palestinian sovereignty? If not, who will make it? Anything short of this will fail.